Education was highly centralized and the indoctrination of Marxist-Leninist theory was an important component of the curricula of all schools. The schools’ additional ideological role left a legacy in the post-Soviet system that proved difficult for teachers to overcome. In the 1990s, reform programs aimed to revise the educational philosophy of the Soviet era and significantly revise the curriculum. However, insufficient funding has frustrated the achievement of these goals, and the talented teaching profession has been lost due to low salaries.
The Soviet government ran practically every school in Russia. The basic philosophy of the Soviet schools was that the teacher’s job was to impart normative materials to the students, and the student’s job was to memorize those materials, all set in the context of socialist morality. This set of morals emphasizes the primacy of the group over the interests of the individual. Therefore, creativity and individuality of both teachers and students are discouraged. The Soviet system also preserved some traditions of the Tsarist era, such as the five-point grading scale, formal and orderly classroom settings, and standard school uniforms: dark white-collar dresses for girls, white shirts and black pants for boys.
As in other areas of Soviet life, the need for educational reform appeared in the eighties. The reform programs of that period called for new curricula, textbooks, and teaching methods. The main objective of these programs was to create a “new school” that would better equip Soviet citizens to deal with the modern and technologically advanced nation that Soviet leaders envisioned in the future. However, in the 1980s, facilities were generally insufficient, overcrowding was common, and equipment and materials were scarce. Schools and universities did not provide sufficient skilled labor for almost all sectors of the economy, and exploitative bureaucracy further affected the contribution of education to society. At the same time, young Russians became increasingly skeptical about the Marxist-Leninist philosophy they were forced to assimilate, as well as about the stifling of self-expression and individual responsibility. In the last years of the Soviet Union, funding for the creation of large-scale “new schools” was insufficient, and the requirements of ideological purity continued to stifle the new pedagogical creativity announced in official statements.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the transition to democracy had a profound impact on national education policy. In 1992, a reformist philosophy was put into place in the Education Act. The basic principle of this law was the abolition of state control over educational policy. In regions with a non-Russian population, this meant that educational institutions could base their curricula and teaching methods on national and historical traditions. In all regions, the enactment of the law meant great autonomy for local authorities to choose the most appropriate educational strategies in time and place. Post-Soviet educational reform also emphasized teaching objectively, thus discarding all forms of narrow institutional viewpoints of the previous era and preparing youth to deal with all aspects of society they would encounter by offering a broader interpretation of the world.
Post-Soviet philosophy of education also sought to integrate education with the productive and economic processes that graduates would go through in adult life. By envisioning a continuing education program that continues throughout an individual’s life, this concept aims to transform the educational process from an economic burden on the state into an engine of economic progress. Of great importance in this program is the reorientation of vocational training to complement the economic reforms of the 1990s. New educational systems for farmers and various types of on-the-job training for adults have been introduced, and new economic approaches emphasize an understanding of market economics.
Post-Soviet Education Structure
Article 43 of the 1993 constitution affirmed the right of all citizens to education. It states that “basic public education is compulsory” and that parents or guardians are responsible for ensuring this
Children get an education. Public access to preschool education, general basic education and secondary vocational education is guaranteed in state or municipal educational institutions and in companies,” according to the constitution. Although this access still existed in principle in the mid-1990s, many components of the system were increasingly inadequate. In 1993, about 35.2 million students attended Russian schools of all levels, including 20.5 million in public primary and secondary schools, 1.8 million in vocational and technical schools, and 2.1 million in private secondary schools.
mania, and 2.6 million in institutions of higher education (see Table 12, Appendix). At that time, a total of 70,200 public elementary and secondary schools and 82,100 pre-schools were operating. Of the first category, there were 48,800 in rural areas and 21,000 in urban areas.
In 1995, projected budget spending on education was about 3.6 percent of the total state budget, a level Russian experts agreed could not maintain the system as it was, let alone implement changes required by law. Post-Soviet Legislation. The financing system made educational institutions completely dependent on state funds; There were no external sources of financing as there were no tax advantages derived from investing in education.
Because the Soviet Union did not build enough schools to absorb the increase in enrollment, Russia inherited a school system that was too large and overcrowded with a deteriorating infrastructure. In the late eighties of the century
In the past, 21 percent of students attended schools without central heating and 30 percent were taught in buildings with no running water. In 1992, Russia had about 67,000 primary and secondary schools, providing an average area per pupil of 2.6 square meters, a third of the official standard. About a quarter of the schools housed 900 or more students. In 1993 Russia was forced to close about 20,000 of its schools due to physical shortcomings, and it is estimated that a third of the national school’s capacity needed extensive repairs. In 1994, one in two students attended a school that operated in two or three shifts. Rural schools, which represent about 75 percent of the national total, have been in particularly poor condition.
The Soviet Union suffered from a teacher shortage for the decades prior to the 1990s. Although the profession was highly regarded by society, teachers’ salaries were among the lowest, at least in part because of women’s predominance of the field at the primary and secondary levels. The emerging market economy of the 1990s improved wages and employment opportunities outside of teaching for many who would have remained in education under the more stringent Soviet system; So the deficiency is exacerbated. In the 1992-1993 school year, Russian schools had about 29,000 vacant teacher positions, and in the following year 25 percent of all foreign language teaching positions were vacant. Although low salaries damaged the morale of Russian teachers, they were deeply disappointed by the end of the early post-Soviet ideal years of innovation and freedom of expression and the constant decline of their physical environment. In the mid-1990s, rural schools had particular difficulties in retaining teachers, as qualified young people sought opportunities in larger communities.
The end of the communist regime led to a comprehensive revision of the curriculum. A new model for guiding education was developed and more attention was paid to the arts, humanities, and social sciences. The Education Act of 1992 highlighted the humane nature of education, shared values, freedom of human development and citizenship. The curricular changes were reflected in another document which is the core curriculum of the general secondary school. The public curriculum reform program will be implemented over a five-year period ending in 1998. By the mid-1990s, many public schools had designed private curricula, some of which reverted to the classical studies of the beginning of the decade. 1900. Domestic curriculum and material development was codified in 1992, although financial constraints limited experimentation and the Soviet era left teachers heavily biased toward standardized teaching and rote memorization. Negatives
With the Soviet era, the quality and content of the curriculum varies widely among public schools. One of the main factors encouraging local initiative is the chaos of the federal education agencies, which often leave the oblasts, regional and municipal authorities to their fate. However, only about a third of primary and secondary schools took the opportunity to develop their own curricula; Many departments were unwilling to make large-scale decisions independently.
Russian parents have the option to send their children to preschool until the age of seven, when enrollment in primary school becomes mandatory. Since the vast majority of mothers still work full time, many preschool facilities are located with companies. However, as companies have become more profit-oriented, many have abandoned or reduced their support for such facilities. The number of childcare facilities for working parents declined significantly after 1991, mainly because many of these facilities lacked funds to continue operating without state support. Of the approximately 82,100 pre-schools operating in 1993, more than a third were housed in inadequate facilities.
Although the Education Act of 1992 lowered the upper age for compulsory education ranging from
From the age of seventeen to fifteen, in the mid-1990s, more than 60 percent of students stayed in school during the previous required ten years. Among Russia’s education reforms is a regulation that allows school officials to expel students fourteen years of age or older who fail their courses. By the end of 1992, about 200,000 students had been expelled and twice or three times that number had dropped out of school. In the mid-1990s, Russia had five types of secondary schools: regular schools with a core curriculum; schools offering electives; Schools that offer intensive study in electives; Schools designed to prepare students for entrance exams to a higher education institution (vyssheye uchebnoye zavedeniye –VUZ; pl., VUZy); and alternative schools with pilot programmes.
Public education is free, but in 1992 many state higher education institutions began charging tuition fees. At that time, nearly half of the students above the secondary level paid some kind of tuition fee. The Education Act 1992 expressly provides for private educational institutions; In the following years, various organizations for special education emerged and a variety of private schools and colleges were opened. In 1992, more than 20,000 students were enrolled in some 300 non-public schools.
While public schools debated what to do with their new academic freedom, private schools and nurseries became centers of innovation, with pre-revolutionary teaching methods rediscovered and teaching methods freely borrowed from Western Europe and the United States. Private schools, which largely cater to Western-oriented families trying to advance in the
For the newly reconstructed social ladder, to learn English and other essential skills. The student-teacher ratio is very low, and teachers’ salaries average around $170 per month (about three times the average for a public school teacher). Tuition can be as high as $3,000 per year, but some private schools charge parents according to their means, living instead on donations of money and time from wealthy parents. Unlike public schools, all private schools must pay rent, utilities and textbooks, and many have struggled to maintain adequate building space.
The literacy rate in Russia is around 100 percent, with the exception of some areas dominated by ethnic minorities, where the rate can be much lower. According to the 1989 census, three-fifths of Russia’s population aged 15 and over have completed Stage Two
and 8% have completed their higher education. There are wide differences in educational attainment between urban and rural areas. The 1989 census indicated that two-thirds of the country’s urban population aged 15 and over had completed secondary school, compared to less than half of the rural population. Schools can award diplomas in only three languages: Russian, Tatar and Bashkir, a requirement that puts many at a disadvantage.
More than 100 ethnic groups in the country.
The VUZ category includes all institutions of post-secondary education in Russia; In 1995 their number was about 500, including 42 universities. The other two types of VUZ are the Institute and the Polytechnic Institute. The institutes, the largest of the three groups, train students in a specific field such as law, economics, art, agriculture, medicine or technology. Polytechnics teach the same set of subjects but without specializing in one field. Most universities study arts and pure sciences.
The institute’s program consists of two phases. After completing two years of general studies, the student receives a certificate; Then he can take an entrance exam to continue for an additional two years or finish the program and look for a job. Completion of the next two years leads to the award of a baccalaureate degree. The next level of higher education is a specialized study based on a research program in the field of future professional activity. This stage lasts for at least two years, at the end of which the individual is appointed as a specialist in the chosen field. The highest level of higher education is postgraduate work, which includes a three-year study and research program leading to a candidate’s degree (kandidat) and eventually a Doctor of Science (doktor nauk).
In the post-Soviet era, the higher education system underwent a more radical transformation than the primary and secondary systems. Power has shifted from the center to agencies in local and subnational jurisdictions. About 14 percent of higher education institutions are located in the twenty-first federal republic (see Table 13, Appendix). Under the new system, each VUZ university can define its own admission policy and the content of its academic programmes. These institutions also have their own financial resources and operating laws.
Most Russian universities are located in Lar
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